Shin splints, medically known as medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), is a common condition that affects many athletes and individuals who engage in repetitive activities involving the lower legs. As a foot and ankle surgeon, I have encountered numerous cases of shin splints and understand the importance of proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. In this blog post, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and various treatment options available for shin splints.

Understanding Shin Splints: Shin splints refer to the pain and inflammation that occur along the shin bone (tibia). They typically develop due to overuse or repetitive stress placed on the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue surrounding the shin. This condition is commonly seen in runners, dancers, military personnel, and athletes participating in sports with frequent jumping or quick changes in direction.

Causes of Shin Splints:

  1. Overuse: Increasing the intensity, duration, or frequency of physical activities too quickly can strain the muscles and tendons, leading to shin splints.
  2. Poor biomechanics: Flat feet, high arches, or improper foot and ankle alignment can contribute to the development of shin splints.
  3. Inadequate footwear: Wearing worn-out shoes or those without proper cushioning and support can increase the risk of shin splints.
  4. Hard surfaces: Running or exercising on hard surfaces like concrete can place excessive stress on the lower legs and contribute to shin splints.

Symptoms of Shin Splints:

  1. Dull, aching pain along the inner edge of the shin bone.
  2. Pain that worsens during or after exercise and subsides with rest.
  3. Swelling, tenderness, or redness along the shin.
  4. Mild discomfort that progresses to sharp, intense pain if left untreated.

Treatment Options:

  1. Rest and Ice: Allow sufficient time for the legs to heal by reducing or avoiding activities that exacerbate the pain. Applying ice packs to the affected area for 15-20 minutes every few hours can help reduce inflammation.
  2. Pain Management: Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. However, consult with a healthcare professional before using them.
  3. Physical Therapy: A structured rehabilitation program can address muscle imbalances, improve flexibility, and strengthen the lower leg muscles to prevent future shin splints.
  4. Orthotics: Custom-made shoe inserts or orthotic devices can provide better foot and ankle alignment, support the arches, and alleviate stress on the shin bone.
  5. Footwear Modification: Wearing appropriate shoes with cushioning and shock-absorbing properties can help reduce the impact on the lower legs.
  6. Gradual Return to Activity: Once the pain subsides, gradually reintroduce activities, allowing the body to adapt and recover properly.

Prevention Tips:

  1. Gradual Progression: Increase the intensity, duration, or frequency of physical activities gradually, allowing the body to adapt and reduce the risk of shin splints.
  2. Cross-Training: Incorporate low-impact activities such as swimming or cycling into your fitness routine to reduce repetitive stress on the legs.
  3. Proper Footwear: Wear supportive shoes suitable for your foot type and activity level.
  4. Stretching and Strengthening Exercises: Perform regular calf stretches and exercises that target the lower leg muscles to improve flexibility and strength.
  5. Listen to Your Body: Pay attention to any warning signs of pain or discomfort and modify or stop activities accordingly.

When to Consider Seeing a Foot and Ankle Surgeon:

In most cases, shin splints can be effectively managed with conservative treatments such as rest, physical therapy, and footwear modifications. However, there are instances when it is advisable to consult a foot and ankle surgeon for further evaluation and specialized care. Consider seeking the expertise of a surgeon if:

  1. Symptoms Persist: If your shin splint symptoms persist despite conservative treatments and rest, it is essential to consult a foot and ankle surgeon. Prolonged pain and lack of improvement may indicate an underlying issue that requires more specialized attention.
  2. Severe Pain or Swelling: If you experience severe pain, swelling, or significant limitations in your daily activities due to shin splints, it is recommended to see a surgeon. They can conduct a thorough examination, utilize diagnostic imaging if necessary, and provide advanced treatment options to alleviate your symptoms.
  3. Recurring Shin Splints: If you have a history of recurring shin splints, it may be beneficial to consult a foot and ankle surgeon. They can assess your gait, foot structure, and biomechanics to identify any underlying factors contributing to the repetitive nature of your condition. A surgeon can then offer targeted treatment strategies to prevent future occurrences.
  4. Suspected Stress Fracture: If there is a concern that your shin splints may be accompanied by a stress fracture, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention. A foot and ankle surgeon can perform diagnostic tests such as X-rays or MRI scans to evaluate the extent of the injury and recommend appropriate treatment options.
  5. Performance-Affecting Symptoms: For athletes or individuals whose performance is significantly impacted by shin splints, a foot and ankle surgeon can provide specialized guidance and treatment plans tailored to their specific needs. They can help optimize recovery and develop strategies to minimize the impact of shin splints on athletic performance.

Remember, a foot and ankle surgeon has the expertise and knowledge to diagnose and treat complex foot and leg conditions. Seeking their advice can provide valuable insights, advanced treatment options, and specialized care for managing shin splints effectively.


Shin splints can significantly impact an individual’s ability to engage in physical activities and pursue their athletic goals. As a foot and ankle surgeon, I emphasise the importance of early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and preventive measures to manage shin splints effectively. By understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and implementing the right treatment options, individuals can overcome shin splints and return to their active lifestyles with confidence and reduced risk of recurrence. Remember, if you are experiencing persistent shin pain, consult a healthcare professional for a comprehensive evaluation and personalized treatment plan.

Disclaimer: This article is intended for informational purposes only and should not be considered as medical advice. It is always recommended to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

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